12 Basic Construction Materials (Building Materials Guide)

Any substance used to construct a structure is referred to as a building material. In the construction sector, there are a variety of building materials that are suitable for projects of any size.

12 Different Types of Construction Materials and How to Use Them

Every building material has its own set of characteristics that make it ideal for a number of uses. These basic construction supplies may be useful for your building project, whether you’re constructing a new building or undertaking a home remodeling project, like this νομιμοποιηση αυθαιρετων.

1. Aluminum is used for window frames, moldings, and exterior wall panels because it is robust, lightweight, and pliable. Because salts erode aluminum, which has a low chemical resistance, aluminum pipe should be avoided.

2. Bricks are rectangular blocks that are mortared together. Bricks are generally manufactured of dried clay, although they can also be made of other materials. Although bricks have a great compressive strength and heat resistance, they are readily broken if dropped. Bricks are commonly used for walls, fireplaces, and pavement. Because of their proclivity to crumble during earthquakes, the construction of new brick barriers has diminished during the nineteenth century. However, if you prefer the look of brick, you can use it in modern structures as long as you strengthen it with steel rods.

3. Ceramics are durable, fire-resistant, and water-resistant building materials made from a mixture of minerals and fired at extremely high temperatures. Countertops, bathtubs, sinks, tiles, roofs, fireplaces, and chimneys are all common uses for ceramics.

4. Crushed stone, gravel, and sand are commonly joined together with Portland cement in a concrete mix, which is a common building material. Despite its strong compressive strength and thermal mass, this composite material’s low tensile strength needs additional reinforcing. Reinforce concrete blocks with rebar—vertical steel rods that give tensile strength—for load-bearing walls. Tile grout, flooring, walls, supports, foundations, walkways, highways, and mass constructions like dams all employ concrete. Because of the calcination process used to make cement, concrete construction is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions.

5. Copper is a low-maintenance metal that is corrosion-resistant, lightweight, and has a high electrical conductivity. Copper is a desirable material because of its unusual reddish-brown hue and ability to form into complicated shapes. Copper is commonly used for cladding, roofs, gutters, domes, and spires.

6. Fabric is a flexible material that is made up of interwoven fibers. There are many different types of fabrics, many of which include weatherproofing and fire-resistant properties, but common fabrics in construction include cotton canvas, carbon fiber, woven fiberglass, and vinyl-coated polyester. Fabric can be used to make low-cost, temporary constructions such as tents and carport canopies.

7. Because of its transparency, glass is an excellent building material. Windows, walls, skylights, and facades should all be made of glass. Insulated glass, laminated glass, and veiled glass are all examples of different types of glass.

8. Building paper is a heavy waterproof paper that is used to offer weather protection and thermal insulation, and is commonly used for roofing and basement flood protection. Sheathing paper, floor lining paper, tar paper, and asphalt felt paper are all examples of building paper. One of the key materials of drywall is paper.

9. Plastics are man-made materials composed of a range of polymers. Acrylic, polycarbonate, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and composite plastics are common construction materials. Plastic is lightweight, rot- and corrosion-resistant, low-cost, and simple to mold into a variety of forms and sizes. Plastics have several drawbacks, including the fact that they are not flame-resistant, are not suited for load-bearing applications, and may have a severe environmental impact if they are not recyclable. Light fixtures, windows, carpeting, plumbing systems, electrical wire insulation, sinks, roofing, flooring, and siding are all common uses for plastic.

10. Steel is a metal alloy composed primarily of iron with a little amount of carbon. Because of its high strength-to-weight ratio, structural steel is an excellent choice for skyscraper and other large constructions such as stadiums and bridges. Steel is also used to make nails, screws, bolts, and other fasteners used in construction.

11. When used as the primary building material for a structure, stone is a durable, heavy natural building material with a high compressive strength that is normally produced by a stonemason. For kitchen countertops, marble and granite are popular choices. Stone is also used for floors, walls, and support structures.

12. Wood is a durable, natural substance that is one of the oldest building materials. Wood is generally lightweight, affordable, and easy to modify, and it provides insulation in cold weather, though its properties vary depending on the tree type. Sawmills cut wood into dimensional lumber (such as the traditional two-by-four); huge pieces of dimensional lumber are termed beams, and millwork refers to any sort of ready-made woodwork (such as molding, trim, and doors). Engineered wood is made up of many types of wood that have been artificially joined together to make a composite wood; examples include plywood, particle board, and laminated veneer. Interiors, exteriors, structural frameworks, walls, flooring, shelving, decking, roofing material, ornamental components, and fences are all common uses for wood.

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